明石 行生

所属部署名建築建設工学講座
教員組織建築建設工学講座
教育研究組織工学部・工学研究科
職名教授
更新日: 18/10/09 18:59

研究者基本情報

氏名

    明石 行生
    アカシ ユキオ
    AKASHI Yukio

基本情報

所属

  •  建築建設工学講座 教授

学歴

  • 1983年04月- 1985年03月東京工業大学 社会開発工学専攻
  • 1979年04月- 1983年03月東京工業大学 建築学科

経歴

  • 2012年01月福井大学大学院・工学研究科・建築建設工学専攻 教授
  • 2007年06月福井大学大学院・工学研究科・建築建設工学専攻 准教授
  • 1999年01月- 2007年06月Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Lighting Research Center その他
  • 1985年04月- 1998年11月松下電器産業株式会社 主任研究員

所属学協会

    社団法人照明学会 理事,Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 一般会員,日本建築学会 一般会員,

研究活動情報

論文

  • CIE薄明視測光システムを全視野に適用させるための薄明視輝度計算式の修正
    森本 喬太;聶 棟 輿;明石 行生
    日本建築学会環境系論文集 82(732) 113-119 2017年02月 査読有り
     The CIE mesopic photometry system (CIE, 2010) was based on target detection performances at an eccentricity angle of 10 degrees. It has not been confirmed whether the MES2 system can be applied to other eccentricity angles in the peripheral visual field. To verify the validity of the CIE mesopic photometry system and modify the system if necessary, this study conducted a target detection experiment by employing six subjects. This experiment measured the subjects' reaction times for targets presented at eccentricity angles of 5, 10, 15, and 25 degrees from the center of the visual field. This experiment used light levels between 0.005 cd/m2 and 2 cd/m2 and two lamp spectral power distributions of yellow LED (S/P ratio=0.10) and white LED (S/P ratio = 1.86). Based on the results of the experiment, this study found that the visual field within 5 degrees from the center of the visual field can be treated as the central visual field where only cones function even under mesopic light levels. The CIE mesopic photometry showed good correlations between mesopic luminances and reaction times for the two SPD conditions at eccentricity angles of 10 and 15 degrees. However, the luminance borderline between the photopic vision and the mesopic vision at the eccentricity angle of 25 degrees seemed to be higher than 5 cd/m2, which the CIE MES2 defined.
     Therefore, this study attempted to modify the mesopic luminance formula only for the eccentricity angle of 25 degrees.
  • 間接照明を用いたタスク・アンビエント照明方式の有効性の検証
    山本 果奈;明石 行生
    日本建築学会環境系論文集 81(727) 765-773 2016年09月 査読有り
     General lighting has been widely used for office rooms in Japan. However, to reduce energy consumption it is important to use task and ambient lighting (TAL) systems in office rooms. It is known that TAL systems can minimize electric energy consumption without compromising lighting quality in office rooms To make TAL systems be used more widely in office rooms, it is important to take any measures to improve lighting quality, especially perceived room brightness in office rooms which employ TAL systems.
     We conducted two experiments in a real office room and 1/10-scale office model rooms. In the real office experiment, we employed a proposed TAL system that adopts suspended indirect luminaires as ambient lighting. This is because we hypothesized that the proposed TAL system could reduce gloomy non-lit areas by the indirect ambient lighting and therefore increase perceived room brightness. We measured the energy consumption of the office room and evaluated the quality of the working environment by using questionnaires. From the results, we found that the proposed TAL system with indirect ambient lighting helped reduce deep shadows and discomfort glare, and therefore improved its lighting quality. In addition, the TAL system with indirect ambient lighting reduced lighting energy by about 40% from conventional general lighting.
     In the additional laboratory experiment using 1/10-scale models, we compared the lighting quality of the TAL system using indirect ambient lighting with a TAL system using direct ambient lighting, a TAL system with dimmed ambient lighting, and a general lighting system. In this experiment, we confirmed the results of the real size field experiment and found the lighting quality of the TAL with indirect ambient lighting to be better than the other lighting systems.
     However, this study found the brightness uniformity of the TAL with indirect ambient lighting to be worse than the general lighting and TAL with direct ambient lighting systems. On the other hand, physical indexes such as luminance uniformity (minimum luminance over average luminance) and luminance variation coefficient (luminance standard variation over average luminance) showed better performances for the TAL system with indirect ambient lighting than for the other lighting systems. This implies that luminance modulations within a certain special frequency range may influence perceived brightness uniformity and therefore perceived room brightness. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of how people evaluate uniformity of luminance distributions in lit office rooms.
  • 窓面のグレアが鉛直面のコンピュータ作業の視作業性に及ぼす影響
    加藤 洋子;明石 行生;菅野 普
    日本建築学会環境系論文集 81(727) 757-764 2016年09月 査読有り
     In order to reduce global warming while maintaining occupants' health it is important to make the best use of daylight in interior spaces. To maintain comfortable interior environments while utilizing daylight it is necessary to control window luminance appropriately. To this end, many researchers have referred to discomfort glare from high-luminance windows. However, since recent office workers often perform visual tasks by using computer displays their visual performances are susceptible to high-luminance windows. Ocular light scatter covers the entire visual field of a worker, and therefore often reduces the luminance contrast of a target against its background.
     The purpose of this study was to investigate how a high-luminance side window impairs visual performance of a computer task. Subjects were asked to detect targets presented at the central and peripheral visual field, and the subjects' response times were measured. In order to investigate the mechanisms of how window luminance affects target detections, veiling luminance on each target caused by the window was calculated under each of the experimental conditions. The findings of the study are listed below.
     1) The high-luminance window behind the computer display significantly impaired the detection performance of targets presented on the computer display. As the luminance of the window increased, the visual performance was decreased. The validity of the experimental dataset was confirmed by comparing the dataset with existing experimental data.
     2) When window luminance exceeded a certain luminance between 3000 cd/m2 and 6000 cd/m2, visual performance was deteriorated significantly. This implies that window luminance should be reduced to lower than 3000 cd/m2 for computer tasks.
     3) Evaluations of discomfort glare did not necessarily correspond to visual performance. Therefore, in order to design windows for efficient task environments it is important to minimize the effects of windows on discomfort glare and visual performance.
  • 福井大学 工学部 建築建設工学科 明石研究室(研究室紹介)
    明石 行生; 奥 芳貴
    照明学会誌 99(7) 2015年07月 査読無し
  • 伝続を受けて洗練した灯りを,未来に繋ごう! 北陸支部(今日の課題)
    明石 行生
    照明学会誌 99(7) 331-332 2015年07月 査読無し
  • A PRACTICAL TOOL TO EVALUATE MESOPIC LUMINANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR NIGHT-TIME ROADWAYS BASED ON THE CIE MESOPIC PHOTOMETRY
    Yukio Akashi, Morimoto Kyota
    Proceedings of 28th CIE Session 2015 1(2) 1036-1042 2015年06月 査読有り
  • HOW MUCH MORE ILLUMINANCE IS NEEDED FOR OLDER PEOPLE THAN YOUNG PEOPLE TO PERFORM PHOTOPIC TASKS?
    Kenta Yamamoto, Yukio Akashi
    Proceedings of 28th CIE Session 1(2) 1043-1049 2015年06月 査読有り
  • Interference between Foveal and Peripheral Visual Tasks, Potentially Affecting Mesopic Photometry
    Akashi Yukio;Kanaya Sueko;Ishikura Chieko
    Journal of Light & Visual Environment 38 79-88 2014年 査読有り
    Commission Intemationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) published CIE 191: Recommended System for Mesopic Photometry Based on Visual Performance was published in 2010. However, it is still necessary to identify appropriate applications and make guidelines for the new mesopic photometry system. To this end, we dealt with interference between the foveal task and the peripheral task that often exists in the real driving context. Such interference often appears to exaggerate the effectiveness of short-wavelength radiation on peripheral visual performance at mesopic light levels. To address a question of how the foveal vision affects the peripheral vision for different spectral power distributions, but for the same mesopic luminance, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment and two supplemental laboratory experiments. In these experiments, we asked subjects to perform a foveal tracking task and a peripheral target-detection task, simulating nighttime multi-tasking driving activities in mesopic light levels. Based on the results of the experiments we confirmed the Purkinje phenomena. We also found interference between the foveal task and the peripheral task (especially when the foveal task was difficult). Such interference not only impairs the foveal task performance but also reduces the peripheral responses significantly, and potentially makes the Purkinje phenomena appear to be exaggerated. This confirmed the importance of using light sources with more short-wavelength radiation for better peripheral visibility in nighttime roadway lighting applications. Such interference also suggests that the use of a simple easy task may help eliminate any effect of interference on databases to establish a unified mesopic photometry system.
  • VISUAL MECHANISMS OF DISCOMFORT GLARE SENSATION CAUSED BY LEDS
    明石 行生, 浅野翔平, 角田
    Proceedings of CIE Conference 2013年06月 査読有り
  • FIELD EXPERIMENTS OF STREET LIGHTING USING THE HIGH S/P RATIO LEDS
    斎藤 孝, 明石 行生
    Proceedings of CIE Conference 2013年06月
  • 未来の照明
    明石 行生, 村上克介
    日本照明家協会誌(1) 20-23 2013年01月 査読無し
  • LED和ろうそく
    明石 行生
    北陸経済研究(408) 50-51 2013年01月 査読無し
  • 2011年の節電対策がオフィス照明環境に与えた影響
    望月悦子, 吉澤望, 岩田利枝, 宗方淳, 平手小太郎, 明石 行生
    日本建築学会環境系論文集 78(683) 42263 2013年01月 査読有り
  • 国際照明委員会(CIE)の薄明視測光システムとはどのようなものか?(<特集>薄明りにおける目の特性に基づく高効率で安全な照明)
    明石 行生
    照明学会誌 97(4) 209-212 2013年04月 査読無し
    This article introduces the CIE191:2010 Recommended System for Mesopic Photometry Based on Visual Performance. This article will lead readers to understand how to calculate a mesopic luminance by using two variables, i.e., an s/p ratio and an adaptation luminance, what kinds of experimental data CIE191 was based on, and what problems CIE191 has to be solved before being applied to practical lighting applications.
  • 2011年の節電対策がオフィス照明環境に与えた影響:東日本大震災に伴うオフィスの節電照明環境の実態 その1
    望月 悦子;吉澤 望;岩田 利枝;宗方 淳;平手 小太郎;明石 行生
    日本建築学会環境系論文集 78(683) 9-16 2013年 査読有り
    The purpose of this study is to reconsider the optimal lighting conditions in office buildings with respect to both the occupants' visual comfort and reduced energy use. This paper reports on how the lighting in office buildings in Japan changed after the events that followed the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011. For the first step, a survey of facility managers in office buildings was conducted nationwide. The survey focused on specific measures taken to reduce power consumption. Additionally, the occupants of each office building filled out a questionnaire about the lighting conditions in their working areas.
    The results showed that for about half or more buildings, saving measures for lighting and air-conditioning during the summer months were taken. With regards to lighting, the number of illuminated lamps was reduced (partial lighting) and ceiling luminaires were turned off automatically at a preset time in order to avoid forgetting to turn them off when unnecessary, such as lunch-time or at the end of working hours. It could be supposed that the desktop illuminance of the most of the office buildings shifted from 750-1000 lx to 300-500 lx due to electricity-saving measures.
  • タスク・アンビエント照明ガイド (3)
    明石 行生
    照明学会誌 96(12) 787-789 2012年12月 査読無し
  • 視票の提示位置がプルキンエ効果に及ぼす影響
    中川慶子, 明石 行生, 有松孝之, 京藤伸弘
    照明学会誌 96(11) 752-760 2012年11月 査読有り
  • タスク・アンビエント照明ガイド (1)
    明石 行生
    照明学会誌 96(9) 621-622 2012年09月 査読無し
  • タスク・アンビエント照明ガイド (2)
    明石 行生
    照明学会誌 96(10) 691-692 2012年09月 査読無し
  • TALを知る者は富む
    明石 行生, 本間睦朗
    照明学会誌 96(8B) 493-496 2012年08月 査読無し
  • 街路照明の分光特性が空間の明るさに及ぼす影響
    白倉公隆, 明石 行生, 斎藤孝
    照明学会誌 96(5) 259-271 2012年05月 査読有り
  • 加齢による水晶体の黄色化が薄明視レベルの視作業性に及ぼす影響
    明石 行生, 中川慶子
    照明学会誌 96(5) 298-302 2012年05月 査読有り
  • 40191 オフィス照明の節電対応と省エネルギー(節電照明から見えたもの(1),オーガナイズドセッション,環境工学I,2012年度大会(東海)学術講演会・建築デザイン発表会)
    本間 睦朗;中村 芳樹;明石 行生;中尾 理沙
    学術講演梗概集 2012 409-412 2012年09月 査読有り
  • 街路照明の分光特性が空間の明るさに及ぼす影響
    白倉 公隆;明石 行生;斎藤 孝
    照明学会誌 96(5) 259-271 2012年05月 査読有り
    A laboratory experiment and two field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of lamp spectralpower distribution on perceived scene brightness in nighttime lit streets and reveal the mechanisms of theperception of scene brightness.The experimental results confirmed the Purkinje effect in which a scene appearsbrighter when it is illuminated by lamps with enriche dshort・wavelength radiation. The results also suggest thatperceived scene brightness corresponds to mesopic luminances within the range of the expermental conditionsand short-wavelength cones contribute to the perception of scene brightness to a limited degree at mesopic light levels.levels.
  • 加齢による水晶体の黄色化が薄明視レベルの視作業性に及ぼす影響
    明石 行生;中川 慶子
    照明学会誌 96(5) 298-302 2012年05月 査読有り
  • 視票の提示位置がプルキンエ効果に及ぼす影響
    中川 慶子;明石 行生;有松 孝之;京藤 伸弘
    照明学会誌 96(11) 752-760 2012年11月 査読有り
    The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) approved a compensated mesopic photometry system(MES2)to bridge between V(lambda) and v' (lambda). However,before the system is applied to real road lightingapplications,several problems need to be solved. Among them,we investigated the effects of target positions onthe Purkinje phenomenon and therefore on the current mesopic photometry system. We conducted twoexperiments by using a high-pressure sodium (HPS)lamp and three ceramic metal halide (CMH) lamps.Theexperimental results showed that there were small variations in the Purkinje effect depending on target positions.Such experimental results seemed to reflect retinal density distributions of cones and rods. Practically, however,mesopic luminances obtained from the CIE mesopic photometry system (MES2)were correlated to reaction times to targets presented at eccentricity angles between 5-and 15-degrees.The experimental results also suggestedthat a glare source appeared to exaggerate differences in reaction time for peripheral target detections betweenHPS and CMH illuminations,and therefore that the use of lamps with higher S/P ratios improved drivers'visualperformance more than the mesopic photometry predicts.
  • TALを知る者は富む(年報ズームアップ)
    明石 行生;本間 睦朗
    照明学会誌 96(8) 493-496 2012年08月 査読無し
  • 40184 高齢者に適したタスク・アンビエント照明(タスク・アンビエント照明,環境工学I,2012年度大会(東海)学術講演会・建築デザイン発表会)
    明石 行生
    学術講演梗概集 2012 393-394 2012年09月 査読無し
  • 40190 2011年震災によるオフィス照明環境の実態調査(節電照明から見えたもの(1),オーガナイズドセッション,環境工学I,2012年度大会(東海)学術講演会・建築デザイン発表会)
    望月 悦子;吉澤 望;岩田 利枝;宗方 淳;平手 小太郎;明石 行生
    学術講演梗概集 2012 405-408 2012年09月 査読有り
  • Several views of metal halide and high-pressure sodium lighting for outdoor applications
    M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, Y. Akashi
    Lighting Research & Technology 41(4) 297-320 2009年12月 査読有り
  • The Effect of Yellowing Human Crystalline Lens on the Mesopic Vision
    Keiko Nakagawa, Yukio Akashi
    CIE Light and Lighting Conference 2009年05月
  • 光源の分光特性と効率-簡易分光器を教材として-
    明石 行生, 中川 慶子, 山田 佐知
    電球工業会報 507 35-39 2009年01月 査読無し
  • Visual mechanisms and implementations of sparkle
    Y. Akashi
    Proceedings of the 26th session of the International Commision on Illumination 26(2) 283-284 2007年06月 査読有り
  • Response of night-migrating songbirds in cloud to colored and flashing light
    W. R. Evans, Y. Akashi, N. S. Altman, A. M. Manville II
    North American Birds 60(1) 476-488 2007年06月 査読有り
  • Driver decision making in response o peripheral moving targets under mesopic light levels
    Y. Akashi, M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough
    Lighting Research & Technology 39(1) 53-67 2007年01月 査読有り
  • Temporal Aspects of Lighting: A Study on detection and acceptance
    W. R. Evans, Y. Akashi, N. S. Altman, A. M. Manville II
    Journal of Light & Visual Environment 31(1) 18-23 2007年01月 査読有り
  • Identifying sparkle
    Y. Akashi, Mike A. Myer, Peter R. Boyce
    Lighting Research & Technology 38(4) 325-340 2006年12月 査読有り
  • Impact of surrounding illumination on visual fatigue and eyestrain while viewing television
    Y. Akashi, Peter R. Boyce
    Journal of Applied Sciences 6(8) 1664-1670 2006年08月 査読有り
  • A field study of illuminance reduction
    John D. Bullough, Y. Akashi, Charles R. Fay
    Energy and Buildings 38(6) 588-599 2006年06月 査読有り
  • Potential recommendations of illuminance reduction for load shedding
    Y. Akashi, Jason Neches
    Lighting Research & Technology 37(2) 133-153 2005年05月 査読有り
  • 道路照明用光源の分光特性の最適化に向けた実証実験
    大西 健太;明石 行生;山田 真;竹井 尚子;鈴木 徹
    照明学会雑誌 101(6) 243-246 2017年

著書

  • Assessment of Headlamp Glare and Potential Countermeasures: The Effects of Headlamp Mounting Height (DOT HS 810 947)
    Yukio Akashi, ohn Van Derlofske, Ramesh Raghavan, John D. Bullough
    編集
    米国運輸省 2008年01月
  • Investigation of Safety-Based Advanced Forward-Lighting Concepts to Reduce Glare (DOT HS 811 033)
    John D. Bullough, Nicholas P. Skinner, Yukio Akashi, John Van Derlofske
    編集
    米国運輸省 2008年06月
  • Sensitivity Analysis of Headlamp Parameters Affecting Visibility and Glare (DOT HS 811 055)
    Yukio Akashi, Fey Hu, John D. Bullough, John Van Derlofske
    編集
    米国運輸省 2008年06月
  • 設計力を育てる建築計画100選
    今井正次, 櫻井康宏編著 ; 明石行生 [ほか] 著;
    分担執筆
    共立出版 2015年
    9784320077164

作品

  • LED和ろうそく
    明石 行生,田中紘一(本学学生), 技術製品(ソフトウェア・ハードウェア等) 2011年03月
  • 行燈の道
    明石 行生,福井青年会議所, 芸術・美術・音楽作品(CD) 2010年11月
  • 簡易分光器
    明石 行生,中川慶子(本学学生), 教材開発 2009年01月
  • ペンタゴン・メモリアルの照明
    明石 行生,Keith Kaseman,Julie Beckman,Jack Mashel,Craig Newman,Zachary Gomes, 建造物 2008年09月

共同研究

  • 睡眠・生体リズム障害を緩和する光環境制御 2008年度
  • 冬期うつ病・睡眠障害を予防・緩和するサーカディアンライト開発のための研究 2008年度
  • 冬期うつ病・睡眠障害を予防・緩和するサーカディアンライトの研究開発 2007年度

受賞

  •  福井大学工学部 The Teacher of The Year 2013 (工学部)2014年01月
    工学部教員で学生の評価に基づく
  •  一般社団法人 照明学会 2013(第11回)照明技術開発賞2013年09月
    LED防犯灯「明光色(アカルミナ)」
  •  福井大学工学部 The Teacher of The Year 2012 (工学部)2013年01月
    工学部教員で学生の評価に基づく
  •  福井大学工学部 The Teacher of The Year 2011 (工学部)2012年01月
    工学部教員で学生の評価に基づく
  •  福井市 福井市景観賞20102010年11月
    行燈の道
  •  Illuminating Engineering Society of North America IES Illumination Awards 2009: The Paul Waterbury Award for Outdoor Lighting Design (Special Citation for the Lighting of an Art Form)2009年11月
    北米照明学会が優秀な照明デザインに対して設ける世界で最も権威がある賞。
  •  福井大学工学部 2008年度工学部優秀教員2009年01月
    工学部教員で学生の評価に基づく
  •  The Society of Light and Lighting, The Chartered Institute of Building Searvices Engineers The Walsh Weston Award (イギリス照明学会論文賞)2008年05月
    過去1年間のLighting Research & Technologyの掲載論文から最優秀論文をイギリス建築設備学会が選定
  •  The Society of Light and Lighting, The Chartered Institute of Building Searvices Engineers The Walsh Weston Award (イギリス照明学会論文賞)2004年05月
    過去1年間にLighting Research & Technology の掲載論文のうち最優秀論文
  •  国務大臣 科学技術庁長官 第57回注目発明1998年04月
  •  社団法人 照明学会 照明学会研究奨励賞1995年
    35歳以下の筆者が照明学会誌に投稿した優秀論文

科学研究費補助金

  • 高効率で安全な道路照明を設計する薄明視輝度計測ツールの開発基盤研究(C)(一般)
    代表者:明石 行生 2014年度
  • オフィスの節電照明の変化実態把握と新しい省エネルギー光環境への展開基盤研究(B)(一般)
    東海大学
    代表者:岩田利枝 2014年度
    担当課題について実験計画、実験実施、っ実験解析、報告書作成
  • 高効率で安全な道路照明を設計する薄明視輝度計測ツールの開発基盤研究(C)(一般)
    代表者:明石 行生 2013年度
  • 覚醒度向上のための体内時計光受容センサー・光制御用LEDシステムの開発基盤研究(C)(一般)
    代表者:明石 行生 2012年度
  • 覚醒度向上のための体内時計光受容センサー・光制御用LEDシステムの開発基盤研究(C)(一般)
    代表者:明石 行生 2011年度
  • 覚醒度向上のための体内時計光受容センサー・光制御用LEDシステムの開発基盤研究(C)(一般)
    代表者:明石 行生 2010年度

教育活動情報

担当授業

  • 都市と建築の環境
  • 大学教育入門セミナー
  • 設計演習基礎第一
  • 地球・都市環境工学
  • 建築設計演習第一
  • 建築設備
  • 建築環境工学第ニ
  • 建築建設工学特別演習及び実験ⅠA
  • 建築建設工学特別演習及び実験ⅠB
  • 建築建設工学特別演習及び実験ⅡA
  • 建築建設工学特別演習及び実験ⅡB
  • 建築環境工学特論2